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Tracking the contribution of national covid-19 recovery efforts towards a climate neutral EU

The Green Recovery Tracker assesses the contribution of EU member states’ national recovery plans to the green transition. The assessment is based on a quantitative and qualitative analysis conducted in partnership with local experts.

Choose a country from the map or list for some short facts about each country.

< 25%
25% – 36%
37% – 50%
> 50%
Definition Green Spending Share

We assess the amount of money (in €) assigned to recovery measures that aim to mitigate climate change. The overall green spending share is calculated as the relative shares of the funds allocated to very positive measures (100% climate coefficient) and those allocated to positive measures (40% climate coefficient), based on our methodology. The approach of weighing measures differently based on whether they make a full or partial contribution to the green transition is also part of the Recovery and Resilience Facility’s climate tracking methodology.

Green Spending Share EU:
Only includes measures contained in (draft) EU Recovery and Resilience Plans.

Green Spending Share Total:
Includes all recovery measures, including measures financed through the domestic budget, where applicable. When selecting this view on the map, the Green Spending Share EU is shown for those countries whose recovery measures are entirely financed through EU funds.

How green is the recovery in EU states?

We evaluated the green spending share of 17 countries’ recovery plans. Currently, we are analyzing the plans from a sectoral perspective.

We provide:

  • Country analyses: Deep-Dive into our assessments of national recovery plans including good and bad practices.
  • A sectoral analysis Tool: Look across sectors to see how much each country is spending in which sector (the tool is currently offline for main. Take a look into our deep-dives providing insights from a sectoral perspective.
  • A Knowledge Hub of relevant reports, documents and literature on recovery. You can search for documents focusing on the global, EU or country context.

Furthermore, on 3 June 2021, we released a short briefing which summarizes three key insights from our analytical work on recovery measures and outlines recommendations based on those. These are:

  • Many national recovery plans are in danger of missing the 37% climate spending target. The Commission’s review of the plans is a crucial moment for realigning the EU with a green recovery, and the Commission should not hesitate to scrutinize member state submissions closely.
  • There are significant risks that measures that look green at first glance may end up supporting fossil fuels. Many plans still include measures not aligned with the green transition. The milestones and targets that are negotiated between the Commission and national governments are an important instrument for providing clarity on where exactly recovery funding will be used and ensure that it advances the green transition.
  • Most recovery plans are not aligned with the EU’s new 2030 climate target and are not used to accelerate the climate transition in line with the new target. This shows that scrutiny not just of investments but also of reforms included in RRPs, including on the links between RRP development and national energy and climate policy such as NECPs, is crucial.

Sector Overview


The transformation of the energy system is fundamental for the path towards climate neutrality. Positive measures include investments in renewable energies, efficiency, storage or green hydrogen. Negative recovery efforts support, for example, coal or fossil gas infrastructure.

Deep-Dive on: Recovery investments and the energy transition

Compare spending across sectors on the dedicated Sectoral Analysis page

Sector Overview


The transformation of mobility is an underleveraged part of the transition towards climate neutrality. Positive contributions support, for example, e-mobility, public transport infrastructure or research in climate-friendly aviation and shipping. Negative measures subsidize the purchase of oil-fuelled cars, trucks or planes.

Compare spending across sectors on the dedicated Sectoral Analysis page

Sector Overview


Modernizing the building stock and climate-friendly construction are a key challenge for the path towards climate neutrality. Helpful measures include, for example, funding for renovation and efficiency, in line with ambitious standards.

Deep-Dive: How Transformational Are The National Recovery Plans For Buildings Renovation?

Compare spending across sectors on the dedicated Sectoral Analysis page

Sector Overview

Agriculture, Forestry & Land Use

Often under the radar in recovery debates, all three sectors will make a crucial contribution to reaching climate neutrality. Positive investments can focus on reforestation, organic farming or smart green infrastructure.

Compare spending across sectors on the dedicated Sectoral Analysis page

Sector Overview


The decarbonization of industry, particularly energy-intensive industries such as steel, cement, and chemicals, remains a major challenge on the path towards climate neutrality. Positive recovery measures include, for example, research, development and demonstration of green steel and chemical processes.

Compare spending across sectors on the dedicated Sectoral Analysis page


Our work relies on the availability of national recovery measures and plans in EU member states.

Via our dedicated Twitter account, we will also share the latest developments with regards to the European recovery as they happen.


We assess what effect individual measures of national recovery plans could have on climate change mitigation efforts. For this, we combine both a quantitative and a qualitative approach. Our assessment builds on the methodology of the EU taxonomy.

Why It Matters

The global COVID-19 pandemic has severely hit economies all over the world, plunging many people into unemployment, insecurity and poverty. In Europe, national governments and the European Union are deploying large recovery packages to bring their economies back on track. These Recovery programs can be powerful tools for simultaneously addressing two of the most pressing issues of our time: the socio-economic consequences of the pandemic and the climate crisis.

About Us

The Green Recovery Tracker is a joint project by Wuppertal Institute and E3G - Third Generation Environmentalism, combining scientific excellence and political insights. Our analyses are supported by national partners and experts acknowledged in the country reports.

Our core team consists of Timon Wehnert, Helena Mölter, Magdolna Prantner and Stefan Werland (all Wuppertal Institute) as well as Johanna Lehne and Felix Heilmann (both E3G). We are very grateful to Alexander Reitzenstein for his past contributions. If you have any questions or comments, we would love to hear from you!

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